Keyword

EARTH SCIENCE | OCEANS | OCEAN CIRCULATION | OCEAN CURRENTS

22 record(s)
 
Type of resources
Topics
Keywords
Contact for the resource
Provided by
Years
From 1 - 10 / 22
  • Categories    

    Ocean currents are strongly controlled by seafloor topography. Recent studies have shown that small-scale features with slopes steeper than 0.05° significantly affect subsurface eddy velocities and the vertical structure of ocean circulation patterns. Such slope gradients represent the majority of the present-day oceanic basins. Modeling past oceanographic conditions for key climate stages requires similarly detailed paleo seafloor topography grids, in order to capture ocean currents accurately, especially for ocean models with sufficient resolution (<0.1°) to resolve eddies. However, existing paleobathymetry reconstructions use either a forward modeling approach, resulting in global grids lacking detailed seafloor roughness, or a backward modeling technique based on sediment backstripping, capturing realistic slope gradients, but for a spatially restricted area. Both approaches produce insufficient boundary conditions for high-resolution global paleo models. Here, we compute high-resolution global paleobathymetry grids, with detailed focus on the Southern Ocean, for key Cretaceous and early Cenozoic climate stages. We backstrip sediments from the modern global bathymetry, allowing the preservation of present-day seafloor slope gradients. Sediment isopach data are compiled from existing seismo-stratigraphic interpretations along the Southern Ocean margins, and expanded globally using total sediment thickness information and constant sedimentation rates. We also consider the effect of mantle flow on long-wavelength topography. The resulting grids contain realistic seafloor slope gradients and continental slopes across the continent-ocean transition zones that are similar to present-day observations. Using these detailed paleobathymetry grids for high-resolution global paleo models will help to accurately reconstruct oceanographic conditions of key climate stages and their interaction with the evolving seafloor.

  • Categories    

    Water samples for the analysis of pigments using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were collected only in the first 12 months of the sampling program. Pigment analysis is used to estimate algal community composition and concentration. Pigments which relate specifically to an algal class are termed marker or diagnostic pigments. Some of these diagnostic pigments are found exclusively in one algal class (e.g. prasinoxanthin in prasinophytes), while others are the principal pigments of one class, but are also found in other classes (e.g. fucoxanthin in diatoms and some haptophytes; 19′-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin in chrysophytes and some haptophytes). The presence or absence of these diagnostic pigments can provide a simple guide to the composition of a phytoplankton community, including identifying classes of small flagellates that cannot be determined by light microscopy techniques. There was general similarity in pigment composition between all sites, with a presence of diatoms (as indicated by fucoxanthin), haptophytes (hex-fucoxanthin), prasinophytes (prasinoxanthan), cryptophytes (alloxanthan), cyanophytes (zeaxanthan) and green algae (chl-b) in nearly all monthly samples at all sites. The green algae could be in the form of euglenophytes or prasinophytes; the absence of the pigment lutein in all samples indicates that chlorophytes are not present in Storm Bay, at least at the sites sampled.

  • The AUStralian Tidal Energy (AUSTEn) project was a three year project (2018 - 2020) funded by the Australian Renewable Energy National Agency (agreement number G00902) led by the Australian Maritime College (University of Tasmania), in partnership with CSIRO and University of Queensland. The project had a strong industry support (Atlantis Resources Limited, MAKO Tidal Turbines Ltd, Spiral Energy Corporation Ltd). The aim of the project was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of tidal energy in Australia, based on the best understanding of resource achievable. For further information and output of the project, please visit the AUSTEn project website www.austen.org.au.

  • Comprehensive baseline environmental data for Storm Bay in south eastern Tasmania were required to inform the salmonid industry regarding site selection, to provide background environmental data before large-scale farming commences, and to support the development of a scientifically relevant and cost-effective environmental monitoring program. Storm Bay is a large deep bay that receives freshwater inflow from the River Derwent on its north-western boundary and exchanges water with Frederick Henry Bay on its north-eastern boundary. The eastern and western boundaries are defined by the Tasman Peninsula and Bruny Island, respectively, and the southern boundary connects with the Tasman Sea. This area is a mixing zone between the River Derwent outflow and oceanic waters. The oceanography in Storm Bay is complex and is characterized by considerable fluctuations in temperature, salinity and nutrients on variable temporal and spatial scales. This is due to the southerly extension of warm nutrient-depleted sub-tropical waters transported via the East Australian Current (EAC) down the east coast of Tasmania over summer, whilst the south and south-west coasts are influenced by cooler, nutrient-rich sub-Antarctic waters from the south and the Leeuwin Current from the north-west (Buchanan et al. 2014). The current project arose in response to the salmon aquaculture industry recognising the need for increased scientific knowledge to support ecologically sustainable development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming operations in south-eastern Tasmania, particularly expansion into Storm Bay. The information provided will assist salmon companies to manage their operations in Storm Bay under varying environmental conditions. Our research has also provided the opportunity to investigate changes in water quality over a quarter of a century, as CSIRO investigated seasonal and inter-annual variability in chemical and biological parameters in Storm Bay during 1985-89. We sampled at the same “master station” in Storm Bay as CSIRO and used similar procedures where possible. Five sites were sampled monthly in Storm Bay for over five years from November 2009 to April 2015, except on rare occasions when weather conditions were unsuitable, and bimonthly at times in 2013 when external funding was not available. Site 1 was located at the mouth of the Derwent estuary and the entrance to Storm Bay, site 2 was in the same location as the ‘master site’ of a CSIRO study in 1985-88, site 3 was furthest offshore and provided the most information on oceanic currents influencing the bay, while sites 5 and 6 were requested by the salmon aquaculture industry as potential sites for expansion of salmon farming. Site 4 was further offshore and monitoring at this site was discontinued after three months because of insufficient time to collect samples from all sites in one day. An additional site, 9, at the entrance to Frederick Henry Bay was included from 18 July 2011 at the request of the Marine Farming Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), to provide information on water quality coming from Frederick Henry Bay. Adjacent to, and largely unaffected by the River Derwent, Frederick Henry Bay is a large marine embayment with limited freshwater input from the Coal River at its northern boundary. ---------------------------------------------- See child records linked to this parent record for specific context and methodologies for each of the monitoring variables (phytoplankton, zooplankton, chlorophyll, pigment, nutrients, oceanography).

  • Categories    

    Zooplankton was counted and identified from three sites over the 5-year period. The net used (200 m Bongo net) was designed to catch meso-zooplankton with an integrated vertical tow through the water column. One net from each of the paired Bongo samples was analysed and the data expressed as numbers per m3. Copepods dominated the zooplankton, with other groups such as salps, krill, appendicularians, cladocerans, chaetognaths and meroplanktonic larvae being seasonally dominant.

  • The ETAS (Eastern TASmania) model is a high-resolution (~2 km in the horizontal) ocean model for eastern Tasmania, providing three-dimensional estimates of mean temperature, salinity, and circulation over the 1993-2016 period. This dataset consists of temperature, salinity, meridional (N-S), zonal (E-W), vertical, along- and cross-shore currents, density, sea level and net surface heat flux organised into yearly files and aggregated daily or monthly. A MATLAB script to extract portions of the data is available here: https://github.com/ecjoliver/extractETAS

  • Categories    

    In support of future science missions, an engineering demonstration was conducted to show the ability of the nupiri muka AUV to be deployed and operated at an ice shelf. The AUV was deployed from Davis Station, Antarctica, to conduct underwater surveys in the vicinity of, and beneath, the Sørsdal ice shelf. The AUV conducted several surface transits from the station to the ice shelf, where dive missions at various depths were conducted. The primary mode of operation was the AUV tracking near the seafloor. In addition, a patch survey was conducted near the stations, where several sediment grabs were taken.

  • Categories    

    Phytoplankton was counted and identified from five sites over the 5-year period. Annual cycles in abundance are available (as cells mL-1), along with detailed species identification. Cell measurements and approximate geometric shape were also recorded for the calculation of biovolume (μL cell-1). Diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated the samples in terms of biomass, however, small cells were also very abundant throughout each year. The data are restricted to an integrated sample from the top 12 m of the water column. Fluorescence profiles elsewhere in this dataset can provide an indication of phytoplankton presence lower in the water column.

  • The AUStralian Tidal Energy (AUSTEn) project was a three year project (2018 - 2020) funded by the Australian Renewable Energy National Agency (agreement number G00902) led by the Australian Maritime College (University of Tasmania), in partnership with CSIRO and University of Queensland. The project had a strong industry support (Atlantis Resources Limited, MAKO Tidal Turbines Ltd, Spiral Energy Corporation Ltd). The aim of the project was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of tidal energy in Australia, based on the best understanding of resource achievable. For further information and output of the project, please visit the AUSTEn project website www.austen.org.au.

  • The ETAS (Eastern TASmania) model is a high-resolution (~2 km in the horizontal) ocean model for eastern Tasmania, providing three-dimensional estimates of daily temperature, salinity, and circulation over the 1993-2014 period. This dataset consists of hourly temperature, salinity, sea level, eastward (u) and northward (v) currents (at depth and vertically-averaged) at selected locations.