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EARTH SCIENCE | LAND SURFACE | GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES

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    This dataset contains polygon extents of all known bathymetry surveys and bathymetry compilations in Australia's marine jurisdiction, including the Australian Antarctic Territory. Each polygon includes metadata identifying attributes, contact details, information on the public availability of data, and (in the case of published data) gridded resolution. The following data sources have been used as inputs: • AusSeabed 'Bathymetry Acquisitions Coverage (Dynamic)' (https://dx.doi.org/10.26186/148613) • AusSeabed 'Bathymetry Compilations Coverage (Dynamic)' (https://dx.doi.org/10.26186/148614) • computed footprints (suffixed by _L0_Coverage) of bathymetry data published through AusSeabed Warehouse Geoserver (https://warehouse.ausseabed.gov.au/geoserver) • computed footprints (suffixed by _BBOX) of bathymetry data published through CSIRO Geoserver (https://www.cmar.csiro.au/geoserver) • manually computed footprints of bathymetry data published through other online repositories: WA Bathymetry Portal (https://dot-wa.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=d58dd77d85654783b5fc8c775953c69b), the Australian Ocean Data Network (https://portal.aodn.org.au) and the NSW SEED Portal (https://www.seed.nsw.gov.au) This dataset was generated to enable reporting for Seamap Australia's 'State of Knowledge' functionality (https://seamapaustralia.org/map/), as existing coverage information does not contain metadata on gridding resolution. The dataset is live and will be continually updated as new surveys are conducted and new coverage information becomes available. Gridding resolution will be appended to existing survey extents when historical surveys are published. This dataset is updated regularly (date of last update: 05/04/2024) and will be maintained in perpetuity until such time that a nationally authoritative source takes over this functionality. Note that a degree of spatial simplification has been conducted to reduce filesize and polygon complexity. All efforts have been made to maintain true survey extent (area-preserving simplification has been used), but polygons may not be representative of the true survey extents, particularly in the case of reported extents from unpublished surveys which cannot be verified.

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    The Tasman Fracture Commonwealth Reserve complements the Port Davey Marine Reserve (encompassing Port Davey, Bathurst Channel and Bathurst Harbour), which was proclaimed by the Tasmanian Government in 2005. It spans the continental shelf, continental slope and deeper water ecosystems south of Tasmania, and is scored by steep canyons. It also encloses other geological features, including steep escarpments and troughs, saddles, basins, and part of a plateau that is over 400 km long and rises up to 3 km above the sea floor. The reserve includes a number of undersea peaks rising to less than 1500 m below the sea surface that provide habitat to deepwater hard corals. These corals provide a structure and habitat for a rich diversity of marine invertebrate animals that live attached corals. This record describes a geomorphology map for the Tasman Fracture CMR that was prepared using bathymetry and backscatter data sourced from CSIRO and Geoscience Australia.

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    This dataset provides geomorphic features of the Australian Marine Parks (2022). The data was generated by Seamap Australia as part of an Our Marine Parks (Parks Australia) project with funding from the Australian Government to improve knowledge relating to classification of the Australian Marine Parks real estate. Bathymetry data was collated from existing AusSeabed data holdings and compiled into multi-resolution bathymetry mosaics for each Park (see https://metadata.imas.utas.edu.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/fb451be4-9de1-4bc2-8fd6-0f285f90916f). All publicly available bathymetry data as at 30th June 2022 was included. Macquarie Island was updated on 25/08/2023 to reflect the new AMP boundaries. The Whitebox tools package in R was used to calculate geomorphometry using the geomorphron function. Processing for each Park was addressed manually, with search distances and slope thresholds adjusted between Parks depending on quality and resolution of bathymetry data, and characteristics of the seafloor. Geomorphons were classified into geomorphic features using the Dove et al (2020) Seabed Morphology Features Glossary. These geomorphic units provide a consistent way to classify the seabed and may be used in combination with visual validation methods to develop benthic habitat maps. Data is supplied as a Web Map Service of geomorphic features overlaid on hillshade for the mapped regions. Data is available for download as a zipped package of geotiffs with accompanying hillshade. ESRI .lyr file and QGIS .sld files are supplied for display in desktop GIS. All Parks with 25% or more bathymetry coverage were included in processing. The table below indicates the Parks included in this data package, and the percent coverage of geomorphic data for each, based on the bathymetry coverage available at the time of processing. Note that the current coverage of bathymetry may be greater than that expressed below and contained within this data package, for areas in which more recent surveys have been published. PARK % COVERAGE Abrolhos 36% Apollo 52% Beagle 35% Boags 31% Bremer 70% Carnarvon Canyon 72% Central Eastern* 47% (41%) Christmas Island* 31% (28%) Cod Grounds 97% Coral Sea* 100% (30%) East Gippsland 96% Eastern Recherche 29% Flinders 30% Franklin 51% Freycinet 40% Gascoyne 53% Geographe 25% Gifford 100% Great Australian Bight 36% Heard & McDonald Islands*† 100% (0%) Hunter 90% Huon 94% Jervis 99% Macquarie Island 40% Mermaid Reef 72% Murray 47% Nelson 58% Ningaloo 54% Norfolk 38% Perth Canyon 98% Solitary Islands 34% South Tasman Rise 59% South-west Corner 46% Tasman Fracture 99% Two Rocks 27% Western Eyre 25% Zeehan 74% * indicates Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data was included in analysis. Coverage of surveyed (non-modelled) bathymetry is shown in parentheses () † has been included in analysis but is not an Australian Marine Park For glossary of features, see: Dove et al. (2020) A two-part seabed geomorphology classification scheme (v.2); Part 1: morphology features glossary. http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.4075248

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    There is an ongoing need for a national index of bathymetry survey coverage in Australian waters. The Marine National Facility (MNF) is Australia's dedicated blue-water research facility, and collects the largest body of publicly-accessible multibeam bathymetry (MBES) data in Australian waters. MNF survey data is routinely published in a raw (unprocessed) form shortly following MNF survey completion by CSIRO's Geophysical Survey and Mapping (GSM) group (https://www.cmar.csiro.au/data/gsm/). Geoscience Australia's AusSeabed initiative (https://ausseabed.gov.au/) works with CSIRO to make MNF MBES data available as maps and for download in gridded format at resolutions specified by the Australian Multibeam Guidelines (https://www.ausseabed.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/95887/Multibeam-Guidelines_v2.pdf). Once gridded MBES data is published, its survey coverage (spatial footprint) is collated into nationally aggregated bathymetry acquisitions maps (e.g. see https://metadata.imas.utas.edu.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/bfaac2bc-0c11-4991-b0fa-2a1dc7fd6e61). This spatial resource is important for research, marine managers, industry, and environmental impact assessment sectors as it provides an overview of the state of research knowledge of the physical seafloor environment in key areas of interest within Australia's vast marine estate. There is a considerable lag between MBES data being made available in L2 specialist format (typically ASCII XYZ), and being processed into a gridded format (e.g. GeoTIFF) following the Australian Multibeam Guidelines resolution specifications. This leaves some uncertainty about the location and coverage of more recently collected MBES data that has yet to be processed and publicly released in a gridded format. This dataset is a compilation of MNF voyage tracks (available through the CSIRO data trawler: https://www.cmar.csiro.au/data/trawler/) from the last 5 calendar years. The dataset will be periodically updated to reflect new voyage tracks; and to remove voyage tracks >5 years old. See 'Last Update' timestamp for an indication of currency. This record will be unpublished at such time that an automated process is developed to update national bathymetry survey coverage databases.

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    This dataset is a compilation product of all publicly available surveyed bathymetry within the Australian Marine Parks (AMPs, 2023 boundaries), merged into a single multi-resolution composite per AMP. The data was compiled by Seamap Australia as part of an Our Marine Parks (Parks Australia) project with funding from the Australian Government to improve knowledge relating to classification of the Australian Marine Parks real estate. This compilation of bathymetry data was the first step in generating geomorphometry classifications (see https://metadata.imas.utas.edu.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/40e9283b-d4ed-4176-8fe6-112b8697003f for derived geomorphometry maps). Bathymetry data was collated from AusSeabed data holdings (https://portal.ga.gov.au/persona/marine), the WA Bathymetry Portal (https://dot-wa.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=d58dd77d85654783b5fc8c775953c69b), the Australian Ocean Data Network (https://portal.aodn.org.au/) and other existing public data repositories. A single multi-resolution bathymetry mosaic, and associated multi-resolution hillshade mosaic, was generated for each AMP. Data is supplied as a single Web Map Service of bathymetry on hillshade for the mapped regions. Data is available for download as (1) bathymetry, and (2) hillshade, Geotiff files for each AMP. The table below indicates the Parks included in this data package, and the percent coverage of bathymetric data for each. Parks not expressly listed below had no publicly accessible bathymetry data available from the sources listed in the 'lineage' section below. This dataset was last updated on 17/04/2024 and represents all public bathymetry data intersecting AMPs that could be located as of that date. PARK % COVERAGE Abrolhos 56% Apollo 52% Arafura 11% Argo-Rowley Terrace 34% Ashmore Reef 68% Beagle 53% Boags 31% Bremer 70% Carnarvon Canyon 82% Cartier Island 9% Central Eastern* 48% (42%) Christmas Island* 43% (41%) Cocos (Keeling) Islands* 25% (19%) Cod Grounds 97% Coral Sea* 100% (30%) Dampier 60% East Gippsland 100% Eastern Recherche 31% Eighty Mile Beach 69% Flinders 31% Franklin 51% Freycinet 58% Gascoyne 67% Geographe 25% Gifford* 100% (70%) Great Australian Bight 40% Gulf of Carpentaria 6% Heard & McDonald Islands*† 100% (0%) Hunter 90% Huon 94% Jervis 99% Jurien 18% Kimberley 13% Lord Howe* 16% (14%) Macquarie Island 46% Mermaid Reef 83% Montebello 89% Murray 47% Nelson 58% Ningaloo 55% Norfolk 42% Oceanic Shoals 22% Perth Canyon 98% Roebuck 100% Shark Bay 16% Solitary Islands 100% South Tasman Rise 78% South-west Corner 49% Tasman Fracture 99% Twilight 1% Two Rocks 32% Wessel 1% West Cape York 3% Western Eyre 25% Western Kangaroo Island 10% Zeehan 73% * indicates Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data was included in compilation. Coverage of surveyed (non-modelled) bathymetry is shown in parentheses () † has been included in analysis but is not an Australian Marine Park

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    Seamounts, elevated seabed features, and bathymetric highs constitute ecologically significant habitats for various marine species, often associated with unique ecosystems and heightened biodiversity. In Australia, the absence of a comprehensive and spatially accurate inventory of these underwater structures has been a notable gap. Existing broad-scale modelling efforts, including the Parks Australia Natural Values Ecosystems (NVE) map (https://seamapaustralia.org/map/#af207808-481a-4648-93d3-4011f2689461), have predominantly relied on coarse, global datasets. These datasets, characterized by low resolution, often fail to incorporate recent bathymetric data, leading to the omission or incorrect identification of features. This work aimed to address these limitations by developing an improved dataset of raised seabed features, specifically designed to enhance broad-scale modelling efforts like those used in the NVE mapping, and in support of the objectives of NESP Marine and Coastal Hub Project 2.3 (https://www.nespmarinecoastal.edu.au/project/2-3/). Seamount features were extracted from a range of data sources (see 'lineage' section of this record) for the area surrounding the Australian continental margin. These were cross-referenced with GEBCO's 2023 global terrain model (15 arc-second interval grid) and any obviously erroneous features removed. This dataset includes all features located inside the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Rather than cropping exclusively to this boundary, those features falling outside the Aus EEZ but in the approximate vicinity were also retained for context Existing feature boundaries were redigitised for areas in which more recent high-resolution bathymetry was available, utilising the 'Bathymetry of Australian Marine Parks (2024)' compilation dataset and individual survey datasets available through the AusSeabed data portal (https://portal.ga.gov.au/persona/marine). Where available, fine-scale geomorphic mapping in which seamounts and pinnacles had been classified were extracted and merged with the larger-scale features. If fine-scale mapping disagreed with features classified in the broader-scale datasets, the finer-scale data was prioritised. Where multiple features occurred immediately adjacent to each other, the digitised area represents the "footprint" of the features and as such, a single polygon may encompass multiple peaks. Where features could be uniquely identified (eg by a formal name/title), this attribute is included in the dataset. This dataset will continue to be updated as more bathymetry data is collected, or until such time that a new authoritative seamounts dataset is released for the Australian margin.

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    The Huon Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) covers a broad depth range from the inner continental shelf at about 70 m, to abyssal depths of more than 3000 m. The majority of the area is in deep water. The Tasman Seamounts Marine Reserve that was proclaimed in 1999 has been wholly incorporated into the Huon Commonwealth marine reserve. The reserve contains a cluster of seamounts that appear as cone-shaped submerged mountains, which provide a range of depths for a diversity of plants and animals. The peaks of many of the reserve's seamounts are between 750 m and 1000 m below the sea surface and support endemic species, including large erect corals and sponges. Some of the flora and fauna are hundreds and possibly thousands of years old, making them some of the longest-lived animals on Earth. The reserve also provides an important connection between seamounts of the Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea. This map of the geomorphology of the Huon CMR was prepared for the NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub Theme D (1) project: National data collation, synthesis and visualisation to support sustainable use, management and monitoring of marine assets.

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    Two OneTemp HOBO pressure data loggers were installed at the Seaport Marina in central Launceston in June 2014 by Dr Ian Kidd, measuring water depth at 1-hr intervals as well as water temperature. Depth is calculated from temperature, total pressure, and barometric pressure, based on fresh water density. The height of the gauge relative to AHD was measured 23 March 2018 by Launceston City Council surveyor Leigh Cornwell, and a correction applied to the data to give water level in metres AHD. The gauge was installed for the purpose of Dr Kidd's PhD research into sediment transport processes in the upper Tamar, and remains open with data collected monthly by Karen Palmer (IMAS honours student). Both projects were supervised by Dr Andrew Fischer.