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underwater cameras

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  • The GBR10 benthic habitat type map is the output of a modelling process that combines satellite imagery and other environmental attributes like water depth, slope and wave climate, along with known occurrences of benthic habitat type. The occurrences of benthic habitat type were derived through machine learning applied to geolocated photos of the benthos (>100,000 photos) that were collected along reef flats and reef slopes at various offshore shallow reefs (~100 reefs). The modelling process involves taking those occurrences of benthic habitat at known locations (training data) and using a machine learning model to build a relationship between benthic habitat type and the underlying data layers (imagery, depth, slope, waves). Because the data layers cover the whole Great Barrier Reef, a prediction is then able to be made for benthic habitat across the whole Great Barrier Reef as well. Contextual editing was then used to make changes to the map, based on a set of geomorphology- and ecology-based rules, such as what environment a class can occur in and what classes are able to neighbour each other (object-based rulesets). This map covers the “offshore” or “mid and outer-shelf” reefs of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Some of the occurrences of benthic habitat type are withheld from the process, and used to check how well the mapping performed at the end (validation). The mapping was carried out by the Remote Sensing Research Centre at the University of Queensland. The scientific method for generating the benthic habitat map can be briefly described as: 1. Ingestion of Sentinel-2 satellite image data, bathymetry and wave climate data derived from Sentinel-2 image data, and various additional derived environmental covariates into Google Earth Engine 2. Stacking of the input data sources into a model-ready environment 3. Running a segmentation routine to create image objects 4. Fitting a supervised machine learning model (e.g. random forest) to known occurrences in order to classify segments into benthic classes 5. Application of object based rules using a range of colour, shape texture and relationship rules to modify the class attribution 6. Validation of mapping accuracy and performance This is an snapshot of the GBR10 benthic dataset taken on Jan 2023 for the Seamap Australia project from the GBRMP Reef Knowledge System (https://reefiq.gbrmpa.gov.au/ReefKnowledgeSystem), see also https://gbrmpa.maps.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=492a87d95e8243728486718e7aed02a8. An updated version of the data may be available from the source provider.

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    In 2014, UniDive (The University of Queensland Underwater Club) conducted an ecological assessment of the Point Lookout Dive sites for comparison with similar surveys conducted in 2001 - the PLEA project. Involvement in the project was voluntary. Members of UniDive who were marine experts conducted training for other club members who had no, or limited, experience in identifying marine organisms and mapping habitats. Since the 2001 detailed baseline study, no similar seasonal survey has been conducted. The 2014 data is particularly important given that numerous changes have taken place in relation to the management of, and potential impacts on, these reef sites. In 2009, Moreton Bay Marine Park was re-zoned, and Flat Rock was converted to a marine national park zone (Green zone) with no fishing or anchoring. In 2012, four permanent moorings were installed at Flat Rock. Additionally, the entire area was exposed to the potential effects of the 2011 and 2013 Queensland floods, including flood plumes which carried large quantities of sediment into Moreton Bay and surrounding waters. The population of South East Queensland has increased from 2.49 million in 2001 to 3.18 million in 2011 (BITRE, 2013). This rapidly expanding coastal population has increased the frequency and intensity of both commercial and recreational activities around Point Lookout dive sites (EPA 2008). Habitats were mapped using a combination of towed GPS photo transects, aerial photography and expert knowledge. This data provides georeferenced information regarding the major features of each of the Point Lookout Dive Sites.

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    An object based image analysis approach (OBIA) was used to create a habitat map of Lizard Island reef, Queensland. Georeferenced dive and snorkel photo-transect surveys were conducted at different locations surrounding Lizard Island. Dominant benthic or substrate cover type was assigned to each photo by placing 24 points random over each image. Each point was then assigned a dominant cover type using a benthic cover type classification scheme containing nine first-level categories - seagrass high (>=70%), seagrass moderate (40-70%), seagrass low (<= 30%), coral, reef matrix, algae, rubble, rock and sand. The OBIA class assignment followed a hierarchical assignment based on membership rules with levels for "reef", "geomorphic zone" and "benthic community" (above). This record contains a snapshot of the data taken for use in Seamap Australia (a national benthic habitat map; https://seamapaustralia.org). View the original record at: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.864209

  • The Marine Futures Project was designed to benchmark the current status of key Western Australian marine ecosystems, based on an improved understanding of the relationship between marine habitats, biodiversity and our use of these values. Approximately 1,500 km2 of seafloor were mapped using hydroacoustics (Reson 8101 Multibeam), and expected benthic habitats "ground-truthed" using towed video transects and baited remote underwater video systems. Both sources of information were then combined in a spatial predictive modelling framework to produce fine-scale habitat maps showing the extent of substrate types, biotic formations, etc. Surveys took place across 9 study areas, including Mount Gardner, a site located just off Two People’s Bay, 30km east of the town of Albany. The area is host to a number of human uses, including recreational and commercial fishing, diving, surfing, recreational boat use and shipping and mining. The marine environment at this location is different to the other three study locations on the south coast, in that it encompasses the protected Two Peoples Bay with seagrass and invertebrate communities and the more exposed rocky and macroalgal reefs around the Mt Gardner peninsula itself.

  • This data is part of the 2013 report "Synthesis of seagrass mapping studies conducted by the Water Science Branch of the Department of Water".

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    The aim of this study was to create a seagrass presence/absence map for the optically complex waters of Moreton Bay. The capability to map seagrass meadows in waters of varying clarity using a consistent and repeatable method is an invaluable resource for conservation and management of seagrass regionally and globally. The map was created using an adaptation of a Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud processing and machine learning algorithm which for seagrass, utilized citizen science spot check field data, Landsat 8 OLI imagery pulled directly from GEE, a bathymetry layer (30 m), slope derived from depth and a coral mask. This dataset consists of a shapefile that shows seagrass presence (≥ 25 % cover) and substrate mapped simultaneously for the turbid waters of the Western Bay coastline and the optically clear waters of the Eastern Banks, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. This record contains a snapshot of the data taken for use in Seamap Australia (a national benthic habitat map; https://seamapaustralia.org). View the original record at: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.937501

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    The Marine Futures Project was designed to benchmark the current status of key Western Australian marine ecosystems, based on an improved understanding of the relationship between marine habitats, biodiversity and our use of these values. Approximately 1,500 km2 of seafloor were mapped using hydroacoustics (Reson 8101 Multibeam), and expected benthic habitats "ground-truthed" using towed video transects and baited remote underwater video systems. Both sources of information were then combined in a spatial predictive modelling framework to produce fine-scale habitat maps showing the extent of substrate types, biotic formations, etc. This project record provides linkage to each of metadata records describing data collected from the 9 study areas: Jurien Bay, Rottnest, Abrolhos Islands, Point Ann, Middle Island, Mount Gardner, Broke Inlet, and Geographe Bay​. To access the source datasets from each study site in their original (unaggregated) form, see child records linked to this parent record.

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    In 2002, aerial photography of the Perth metropolitan coastal waters was purpose-flown to obtain high quality imagery of the benthic habitats. This imagery was used to map the coverage of vegetated areas in two selected areas of Cockburn Sound: Southern Flats and Eastern Shoal. Areas of relatively poor visibility, such as the Eastern Shelf, are difficult to map with confidence using these techniques. A ground-truthing survey was undertaken in 2004 to map the seagrass and reef habitats on the Eastern Shelf utilising sidescan sonar, towed video and spot dives.

  • The Marine Futures Project was designed to benchmark the current status of key Western Australian marine ecosystems, based on an improved understanding of the relationship between marine habitats, biodiversity and our use of these values. Approximately 1,500 km2 of seafloor were mapped using hydroacoustics (Reson 8101 Multibeam), and expected benthic habitats "ground-truthed" using towed video transects and baited remote underwater video systems. Both sources of information were then combined in a spatial predictive modelling framework to produce fine-scale habitat maps showing the extent of substrate types, biotic formations, etc. Surveys took place across 9 study areas, including Rottnest Island, a popular family holiday destination just 20 km off the Perth coast. One of the main drawcards of the island is the diverse marine life inhabiting the surounding waters, which Western Australian locals and tourists can experience by snorkelling, diving, boating and fishing. The marine environment around Rottnest includes seagrass meadows, kelp-covered reef tops, coral patches, and sponge gardens in deeper water. As a result of the warm, southward flowing Leeuwin Current, the island represents the southern limit of the distributions of many tropical corals and fish. The marine life around Rottnest therefore represents a unique mix of tropical and temperate species and habitats.

  • Aquatic flora surveys were conducted in the Leschenault Estuary between 2009 and 2020. Surveys were initially conducted in 2009 by the WA Government Department of Water (described by 2013 "Synthesis of seagrass mapping studies"), and again annually in 2015-2020 by the Department of Water and Environmental Regulation "Leschenault Estuary Seagrass Survey - Cover (DWER-105)". Data access is provided to the initial WA DoW surveys. See associated DWER record in Data WA catalogue for access to newer surveys.