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  • Genomic sampling locations and meadow indices for ribbon weed (Posidonia australis) and wire weed (Amphibolis antarctica) in Shark Bay (Gathaagudu)

  • Growth (shoot count) of Amphibolis antarctica and Posidonia australis following transplant to Middle Bluff and Dubaut Point, Shark Bay. Plants were transplanted by the Malgana people with assistance from UWA staff then assessed for shoot counts after 8 months.

  • Assessment of Posidonia australis transplant survival at 3, 8, 12, 18, and 26 months (August transplant); and 3, 8, 12, 18, 26 and 30 months (April transplant), after planting at Middle Bluff, and Dubaut Point, Shark Bay.

  • Total organic carbon (TOC) sediment stocks as a CO2 mitigation service require exclusion of allochthonous black (BC) and particulate inorganic carbon corrected for water–atmospheric equilibrium (PICeq). For the first time, we address this bias for a temperate salt marsh and a coastal tropical seagrass in BC hotspots that represent two different blue carbon ecosystems of Malaysia and Australia. Seagrass TOC stocks were similar to the salt marshes with soil depths < 1 m (59.3 ± 11.3 and 74.9 ± 18.9 MgC ha-1, CI 95% respectively). Both ecosystems showed larger BC constraints than their pristine counterparts did. However, the seagrass meadows’ mitigation services were largely constrained by both higher BC/TOC and PICeq/TOC fractions (38.0% ± 6.6% and 43.4% ± 5.9%, CI 95%) and salt marshes around a third (22% ± 10.2% and 6.0% ± 3.1% CI 95%). The results provide useful data from underrepresented regions, and, reiterates the need to consider both BC and PIC for more reliable blue carbon mitigation assessments.