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    We hypothesised that New Zealand sea lions from Campbell Island/Motu Ihupuku of various sex and age classes would utilise the water column differently due to differing physiological constraints and therefore have different accessibility to prey resources. We tested whether sea lion diving behaviour varied in relation to (i) age and sex class, (ii) time of day and (iii) water depth. We also hypothesized that the proportion of benthic/pelagic diving, and consequently risk of fisheries interaction, would vary in relation to age and sex. Satellite telemetry tags were deployed on 25 NZSL from a range of age/sex classes recording dive depth, duration and location. Adult females and juveniles used inshore, benthic habitats, while sub-adult males also utilised benthic habitats, they predominantly used pelagic habitat at greater distances from the island. Adult females and juveniles exhibited shorter dives than the same age/sex classes at the Auckland Islands, suggesting a lower dive effort for these age/sex classes at Campbell Island.

  • This dataset contains the input and output data for an extended optimum multiparameter analysis (eOMP). Input data for parameters are given (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate), as obtained from the cited CSIRO open access CTD bottle data for the 2018 SR3 occupation. Output parameters are the proportional contribution of 8 water masses that were defined in the eOMP analysis. The output remineralization estimate, Delta-O, is also given. All data are referenced to depth and geographical position (latitude, longitude) from corresponding CTD bottle data. The eOMP used here was configured following Pardo et al. (2017). Details on the equations, parameterization and end-members that characterize the regional oceanography can also be found in the Supplementary Materials of Traill et al. (2023), including the robustness of the OMP analysis and the uncertainties of both the SWTs’ contributions and the ΔO parameter (Sections S1.2 and S1.3, Table S1, Table S2, Table S3).

  • Southeastern Australia's marine waters are undergoing a trend of increased warming, surpassing the global average. This area has emerged as an alluring location for research on planktic microfossils, particularly dinoflagellate cysts, which are abundant in contemporary and Late Quaternary sediments. The composition of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages offers valuable information about the physical and biogeochemical properties of mid-latitude waters in this region. This study presents an analysis of cyst assemblages from marine sediment cores from waters inshore and offshore Maria Island, Tasmania, southeast Australia, up to 9 kyrs BP. The dominant cysts were Protoceratium reticulatum, Protoperidinium spp. (P. avellana, P. conicum, P.minutum, P. oblongum, P. subinerme, P. shanghaiense) and Spiniferites spp. (S. bulloideus, S. hyperacanthus, S. membranaceus, S. mirabilis, S. pachydermus, and S. ramosus). Inshore, Spiniferites spp. were more abundant (up to 61%), while P. reticulatum was dominant (up to 80%) at the offshore site. Impagidinium spp. and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus were exclusively detected offshore, with their increasing occurrence from 6 kyrs BP to present suggesting a transition from shallow coastal to stable deep-water habitat. Cysts of the Alexandrium tamarense complex were detected over the past 140 years and 9 kyrs BP at the inshore and offshore sites respectively, indicating an endemic long-term presence. Low abundances of Gymnodinium catenatum cysts were detected exclusively inshore from 50 years ago to present, suggesting recent bloom events. The limited southward penetration of the East Australian Current is indicated by the lack of warm-water cyst taxa such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum. Unlike coccolithophores, previously studied in the same sediment core, no discernible shift from cold to warm-water dinoflagellate cyst species was observed. The documentation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages presented in this study will aid in predicting the effects of climate change, eutrophication, and introduction of novel species on local and broader community dynamics.

  • These files contain the data recorded from a mesocosm experiment conducted in Bergen, Norway 2022 which assessed the effect of simualted mineral-based (silicate or calcium) ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE) on diatom silicification. Ten mesocosms were used in total, divided into two groups either the silicate- or calcium based group and alkalinity was increased by either 0, 150, 300, 450 or 600 µmol L-1 above natrually occuring levels. The PDMPO-fluorescence (an appropriate proxy for silicification) of diatoms was recorded on eight seperate days during the experiment. Accompanying data includes measured; macronutrients (nitrate, nitrite, phophate, silicate), total alkalinity, biogenic silica in the water column and sediment trap.

  • This record presents data used in the paper 'Controls on polar Southern Ocean deep chlorophyll maxima: viewpoints from multiple observational platforms,' Philip W Boyd 𝘦𝘵. 𝘢𝘭., submitted to Global Biogeochemical Cycles, November 2023. All methods for the following datasets are detailed and cross-referenced in the paper. Data were collected from a range of methods, including: • vertical profiles (from 1 m resolved profiling using sensors on a CTD rosette: temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity - all calibrated) • vertical profiles (from discrete samples collected from CTD rosette or trace metal clean rosette, for nutrients, chlorophyll, POC, dissolved and particulate iron, active fluorescence, net primary productivity, biological iron uptake) • tow-body sections (undulating tow body (Triaxus) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity (and the ratio of chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity) • time-series observations from a robotic profiling float (BGC-ARGO) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and transmissivity).

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    Robust prediction of population responses to changing environments requires the integration of factors controlling population dynamics with processes affecting distribution. This is true everywhere but especially in polar pelagic environments. Biological cycles for many polar species are synchronised to extreme seasonality, while their distributions may be influenced by both the prevailing oceanic circulation and sea-ice distribution. Antarctic krill (krill, Euphausia superba) is one such species exhibiting a complex life history that is finely tuned to the extreme seasonality of the Southern Ocean. Dependencies on the timing of optimal seasonal conditions has led to concerns over the effects of future climate on krill’s population status, particularly given the species’ important role within Southern Ocean ecosystems. Under a changing climate, established correlations between environment and species may breakdown. Developing the capacity for predicting krill responses to climate change therefore requires methods that can explicitly consider the interplay between life history, biological conditions, and transport. The Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) is one such framework that integrates population and general circulation modelling to simulate the spatial dynamics of key organisms. Here, we describe a modification to SEAPODYM, creating a novel model – KRILLPODYM – that generates spatially resolved estimates of krill biomass and demographics. This new model consists of three major components: (1) an age-structured population consisting of five key life stages, each with multiple age classes, which undergo age-dependent growth and mortality, (2) six key habitats that mediate the production of larvae and life stage survival, and (3) spatial dynamics driven by both the underlying circulation of ocean currents and advection of sea-ice. Here we present the first results of KRILLPODYM, using published deterministic functions of population processes and habitat suitability rules. Initialising from a non-informative uniform density across the Southern Ocean our model independently develops a circumpolar population distribution of krill that approximates observations. The model framework lends itself to applied experiments aimed at resolving key population parameters, life-stage specific habitat requirements, and dominant transport regimes, ultimately informing sustainable fishery management. ____ This dataset represents KRILLPODYM modelled estimates of Antarctic krill circumpolar biomass distribution for the final year of a 12-year spin up. Biomass distributions are given for each of the five key life stages outlined above. The accompanying background, model framework and initialisation description can be found in the following reference paper: Green, D. B., Titaud, O., Bestley, S., Corney, S. P., Hindell, M. A., Trebilco, R., Conchon, A. and Lehodey, P. in review. KRILLPODYM: a mechanistic, spatially resolved model of Antarctic krill distribution and abundance. - Frontiers in Marine Science

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    Locations of the Oysters Tasmania's Sensor Network. The sensor network provides real-time data on salinity, water temperature, and depth in shellfish growing areas in Tasmania. Oyster growers can access the sensor data via the ‘ShellPOINT’ portal (

  • 'Weather@home ANZ' is a global citizen science distributed computing project being run as part of the Oxford-based 'weather@home' project, which is part of ''. In this experiment, a detailed limited area (regional) climate model is embedded within the less detailed 'driving' global model. This higher-resolution regional model is able to tell us in unprecedented detail about potential changes to patterns of weather as climate changes. In the initial 'weather@home' experiment launched in 2010, the project team released this regional modelling capability for three regions: Europe, Southern Africa and the Western USA. This capability has been extended to other regions around the world and the first such new region to be developed was the Australasian region encompassing Australia, New Zealand and surrounding areas, which was launched to the public in 2014. This particular part of the project - 'weatherathome ANZ' - has received support from the University of Oxford (U.K.), the U.K. Met. Office, the Universities of Melbourne and Tasmania (Australia), the Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing and the New Zealand National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). 'weather@home' has also been supported by Microsoft Research.

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    Phytoplankton indirectly influence climate through their role in the ocean biological carbon pump. In the Southern Ocean, the subantarctic zone represents an important carbon sink, yet variables limiting phytoplankton growth are not fully constrained. Using three shipboard bioassay experiments on three separate voyages, we evaluated the seasonality of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) co-limitation of subantarctic phytoplankton growth south of Tasmania, Australia. We observed a strong seasonal variation in a phytoplankton Fe limitation signal, with a summer experiment showing the greatest response to Fe additions. An autumn experiment suggested that other factors co-limited phytoplankton growth, likely low silicic acid concentrations. The phytoplankton responses to Mn additions were subtle and readily masked by the responses to Fe. Using flow cytometry, we observed that Mn may influence the growth of some small phytoplankton taxa in late summer/autumn, when they represent an important part of the phytoplankton community. In addition, Mn induced changes in the bulk photophysiology signal of the spring community. These results suggest that the importance of Mn may vary seasonally, and that its control on phytoplankton growth may be associated with specific taxa.

  • We compare the formulation and emergent dynamics of 11 CMIP6 IPCC marine biogeochemical models. We find that the largest source of uncertainty across model simulations of marine carbon cycling is grazing pressure (i.e. the phytoplankton specific loss rate to grazing). Variability in grazing pressure is driven by large differences in zooplankton specific grazing rates, which are not sufficiently compensated for by offsetting differences in zooplankton specific mortality rates. Models instead must tune the turnover rate of the phytoplankton population to balance large differences in top-down grazing pressure and constrain net primary production. We then run a controlled sensitivity experiment in a global, coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model to test the sensitivity of marine carbon cycling to this uncertainty and find that even when tuned to identical net primary production, export and secondary production remain extremely sensitive to grazing, likely biasing predictions of future climate states and food security.