deep chlorophyll maximum

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  • This record presents data used in the paper 'Controls on polar Southern Ocean deep chlorophyll maxima: viewpoints from multiple observational platforms,' Philip W Boyd 𝘦𝘵. 𝘢𝘭., submitted to Global Biogeochemical Cycles, November 2023. All methods for the following datasets are detailed and cross-referenced in the paper. Data were collected from a range of methods, including: • vertical profiles (from 1 m resolved profiling using sensors on a CTD rosette: temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity - all calibrated) • vertical profiles (from discrete samples collected from CTD rosette or trace metal clean rosette, for nutrients, chlorophyll, POC, dissolved and particulate iron, active fluorescence, net primary productivity, biological iron uptake) • tow-body sections (undulating tow body (Triaxus) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity (and the ratio of chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity) • time-series observations from a robotic profiling float (BGC-ARGO) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and transmissivity).

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    Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth is limited by low iron (Fe) supply and irradiance, impacting the strength of the biological carbon pump. Unfavourable upper ocean conditions such as low nutrient concentrations can lead to the formation of deep chlorophyll or biomass maxima (DCM/DBM). While common in the Southern Ocean, these features remain under-studied due to their subsurface location. To increase our understanding of their occurrence, we studied the responses of phytoplankton communities from a Southern Ocean DCM to increasing light, Fe, and manganese (Mn) levels. The DCM communities were light- and Fe-limited, but light limitation did not increase phytoplankton Fe requirements. The greatest physiological responses were observed under combined Fe/light additions, which stimulated macronutrient drawdown, biomass production and the growth of large diatoms. Combined Mn/light additions induced subtle changes in Fe uptake rates and community composition, suggesting species-specific Mn requirements. These results provide valuable information on Southern Ocean DCM phytoplankton physiology.