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  • A compilation of existing literature on the characteristics of Southern Ocean diatom species.

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    Robust prediction of population responses to changing environments requires the integration of factors controlling population dynamics with processes affecting distribution. This is true everywhere but especially in polar pelagic environments. Biological cycles for many polar species are synchronised to extreme seasonality, while their distributions may be influenced by both the prevailing oceanic circulation and sea-ice distribution. Antarctic krill (krill, Euphausia superba) is one such species exhibiting a complex life history that is finely tuned to the extreme seasonality of the Southern Ocean. Dependencies on the timing of optimal seasonal conditions has led to concerns over the effects of future climate on krill’s population status, particularly given the species’ important role within Southern Ocean ecosystems. Under a changing climate, established correlations between environment and species may breakdown. Developing the capacity for predicting krill responses to climate change therefore requires methods that can explicitly consider the interplay between life history, biological conditions, and transport. The Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) is one such framework that integrates population and general circulation modelling to simulate the spatial dynamics of key organisms. Here, we describe a modification to SEAPODYM, creating a novel model – KRILLPODYM – that generates spatially resolved estimates of krill biomass and demographics. This new model consists of three major components: (1) an age-structured population consisting of five key life stages, each with multiple age classes, which undergo age-dependent growth and mortality, (2) six key habitats that mediate the production of larvae and life stage survival, and (3) spatial dynamics driven by both the underlying circulation of ocean currents and advection of sea-ice. Here we present the first results of KRILLPODYM, using published deterministic functions of population processes and habitat suitability rules. Initialising from a non-informative uniform density across the Southern Ocean our model independently develops a circumpolar population distribution of krill that approximates observations. The model framework lends itself to applied experiments aimed at resolving key population parameters, life-stage specific habitat requirements, and dominant transport regimes, ultimately informing sustainable fishery management. ____ This dataset represents KRILLPODYM modelled estimates of Antarctic krill circumpolar biomass distribution for the final year of a 12-year spin up. Biomass distributions are given for each of the five key life stages outlined above. The accompanying background, model framework and initialisation description can be found in the following reference paper: Green, D. B., Titaud, O., Bestley, S., Corney, S. P., Hindell, M. A., Trebilco, R., Conchon, A. and Lehodey, P. in review. KRILLPODYM: a mechanistic, spatially resolved model of Antarctic krill distribution and abundance. - Frontiers in Marine Science

  • This record presents data used in the paper 'Controls on polar Southern Ocean deep chlorophyll maxima: viewpoints from multiple observational platforms,' Philip W Boyd 𝘦𝘵. 𝘢𝘭., submitted to Global Biogeochemical Cycles, November 2023. All methods for the following datasets are detailed and cross-referenced in the paper. Data were collected from a range of methods, including: • vertical profiles (from 1 m resolved profiling using sensors on a CTD rosette: temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity - all calibrated) • vertical profiles (from discrete samples collected from CTD rosette or trace metal clean rosette, for nutrients, chlorophyll, POC, dissolved and particulate iron, active fluorescence, net primary productivity, biological iron uptake) • tow-body sections (undulating tow body (Triaxus) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity (and the ratio of chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity) • time-series observations from a robotic profiling float (BGC-ARGO) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and transmissivity).

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    At the inception of our project, no study had examined particle fluxes in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean, despite the fact that the SAZ represents a large portion of the total area of the Southern Ocean, serve as a strong sink for atmospheric (~1G t C yr-1 [Metzl et al., 1999]), and is central to hypotheses linking particle fluxes and climate change [Francois et al., 1997; Kumar et al., 1995; Sigman et al., 1999]. The SAZ serves as an interface between the cold nutrient-rich waters to its south and the nutrient-depleted subtropical gyres to its north. SAZ upper layers are marked by a thick layer of relatively homogenous Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), which overlies Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Both water masses are subducted northward beneath the subtropical gyres. Thus particles leaving the surface in these regions contribute to carbon redistribution via both the fraction that reaches the deep sea by settling and the fraction that is remineralized within SAMW or AAIW and subsequently subducted. The SAZ exhibits surface water carbon dioxide partial pressures well below atmospheric equilibrium, but PFZ waters are closer to atmospheric equilibrium in this sector [Metal et al., 1999; Poppet al., 1999]. The relative physical and biological contributions to these carbon dioxide partial pressure variations are unclear, but it is important to determine them because physical and biological carbon dioxide transfers are expected to show different responses to climate change [ Matear et al., 1999; Sarmiento and LeQuere, 1996]. For these reasons we focused on the SAZ and, for comparative purposes, on the PFZ to its south. We measured particle fluxes using moored sinking particle traps at three sites in the SAZ, in the PFZ, and beneath the Subantarctic Front (SAF), which separates them. This record describes particle flux data collected between 2004 and 2005. The NetCDF data contains the following variables. Please note not all variables are supplied in all files, specifically there are not uncertainty estimates and no quality control flags for this data. -----DATA DICTIONARY----- Name, description, units, standard name TIME, time, YYYY-MM-DD, time of sample midpoint TIME_START, time sample open, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample open NOMINAL_DEPTH, depth, m, nominal depth LATITUDE, latitude, degrees_north, latitude of anchor LONGITUDE, longitude, degrees_east, longitude of anchor pressure_actual, actual, dbar, actual pressure sample, sample number, 1, sample number sample_quality_control, quality flag for sample number, unitless, quality flag for sample number mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total mass flux mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total mass flux, mg m-2 d-1,), uncertainty for particulate total mass flux mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total mass flux SAL_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity pH_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale PC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux PN_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux POC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux BSi_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux TIME_END, time sample closed, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample closed Reference, citable reference DOI, DOI

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    At the inception of our project, no study had examined particle fluxes in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean, despite the fact that the SAZ represents a large portion of the total area of the Southern Ocean, serve as a strong sink for atmospheric (~1G t C yr-1 [Metzl et al., 1999]), and is central to hypotheses linking particle fluxes and climate change [Francois et al., 1997; Kumar et al., 1995; Sigman et al., 1999]. The SAZ serves as an interface between the cold nutrient-rich waters to its south and the nutrient-depleted subtropical gyres to its north. SAZ upper layers are marked by a thick layer of relatively homogenous Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), which overlies Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Both water masses are subducted northward beneath the subtropical gyres. Thus particles leaving the surface in these regions contribute to carbon redistribution via both the fraction that reaches the deep sea by settling and the fraction that is remineralized within SAMW or AAIW and subsequently subducted. The SAZ exhibits surface water carbon dioxide partial pressures well below atmospheric equilibrium, but PFZ waters are closer to atmospheric equilibrium in this sector [Metal et al., 1999; Poppet al., 1999]. The relative physical and biological contributions to these carbon dioxide partial pressure variations are unclear, but it is important to determine them because physical and biological carbon dioxide transfers are expected to show different responses to climate change [ Matear et al., 1999; Sarmiento and LeQuere, 1996]. For these reasons we focused on the SAZ and, for comparative purposes, on the PFZ to its south. We measured particle fluxes using moored sinking particle traps at three sites in the SAZ, in the PFZ, and beneath the Subantarctic Front (SAF), which separates them. This record describes particle flux data collected between 2000 and 2001. The NetCDF data contains the following variables. Please note not all variables are supplied in all files, specifically there are not uncertainty estimates and no quality control flags for this data. -----DATA DICTIONARY----- Name, description, units, standard name TIME, time, YYYY-MM-DD, time of sample midpoint TIME_START, time sample open, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample open NOMINAL_DEPTH, depth, m, nominal depth LATITUDE, latitude, degrees_north, latitude of anchor LONGITUDE, longitude, degrees_east, longitude of anchor pressure_actual, actual, dbar, actual pressure sample, sample number, 1, sample number sample_quality_control, quality flag for sample number, unitless, quality flag for sample number mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total mass flux mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total mass flux, mg m-2 d-1,), uncertainty for particulate total mass flux mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total mass flux SAL_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity pH_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale PC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux PN_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux POC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux BSi_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux TIME_END, time sample closed, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample closed Reference, citable reference DOI, DOI

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    Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth is limited by low iron (Fe) supply and irradiance, impacting the strength of the biological carbon pump. Unfavourable upper ocean conditions such as low nutrient concentrations can lead to the formation of deep chlorophyll or biomass maxima (DCM/DBM). While common in the Southern Ocean, these features remain under-studied due to their subsurface location. To increase our understanding of their occurrence, we studied the responses of phytoplankton communities from a Southern Ocean DCM to increasing light, Fe, and manganese (Mn) levels. The DCM communities were light- and Fe-limited, but light limitation did not increase phytoplankton Fe requirements. The greatest physiological responses were observed under combined Fe/light additions, which stimulated macronutrient drawdown, biomass production and the growth of large diatoms. Combined Mn/light additions induced subtle changes in Fe uptake rates and community composition, suggesting species-specific Mn requirements. These results provide valuable information on Southern Ocean DCM phytoplankton physiology.

  • This dataset contains the input and output data for an extended optimum multiparameter analysis (eOMP). Input data for parameters are given (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate), as obtained from the cited CSIRO open access CTD bottle data for the 2018 SR3 occupation. Output parameters are the proportional contribution of 8 water masses that were defined in the eOMP analysis. The output remineralization estimate, Delta-O, is also given. All data are referenced to depth and geographical position (latitude, longitude) from corresponding CTD bottle data. The eOMP used here was configured following Pardo et al. (2017). Details on the equations, parameterization and end-members that characterize the regional oceanography can also be found in the Supplementary Materials of Traill et al. (2023), including the robustness of the OMP analysis and the uncertainties of both the SWTs’ contributions and the ΔO parameter (Sections S1.2 and S1.3, Table S1, Table S2, Table S3).