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EARTH SCIENCE | AGRICULTURE | SOILS | CARBON

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  • The capacity of wetlands to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the sum of two services–the protection of vulnerable organic stocks from remineralisation, and the capacity to sequester GHGs relative to their anthropogenic replacements. Organic carbon accumulation (CA) down through the sediment column is often taken as the measure of sequestration because of its capacity to record long-term variability and trends. However, we demonstrate that: i) CA is not equivalent to sequestration as net ecosystem production (NEP) for open systems; it requires the subtraction of the initial deposition rate of labile allochthonous carbon sources; ii) CA also requires subtraction of intrinsically allochthonous recalcitrants down through the sediment column, and together with subtraction of autochthonous recalcitrants from organic stock services; iii) CA as a climatic mitigation service also requires a diagenetic correction, as the annual deposition of labile organic carbon continues to remineralise over the long-term; and iv) preserving of a wetland has a significantly greater mitigation potential than restoring one. To address the above concerns, a global diagenetic solution is proposed, applied, and tested for a tropical seagrass and mangrove. As expected traditional CA estimates were disproportionately larger than their respective cal. NEPs and together with stocks fell within the ranges reported in the literature, with a final carbon accreditation highly dependent on the choice of their anthropogenic replacements. The review demonstrates that mitigation concepts and measurements for natural carbon sequestration solutions require re-evaluation to avoid GHG emissions above their capacity or reduce the ability to fulfil emission targets.

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    At the inception of our project, no study had examined particle fluxes in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean, despite the fact that the SAZ represents a large portion of the total area of the Southern Ocean, serve as a strong sink for atmospheric (~1G t C yr-1 [Metzl et al., 1999]), and is central to hypotheses linking particle fluxes and climate change [Francois et al., 1997; Kumar et al., 1995; Sigman et al., 1999]. The SAZ serves as an interface between the cold nutrient-rich waters to its south and the nutrient-depleted subtropical gyres to its north. SAZ upper layers are marked by a thick layer of relatively homogenous Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), which overlies Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Both water masses are subducted northward beneath the subtropical gyres. Thus particles leaving the surface in these regions contribute to carbon redistribution via both the fraction that reaches the deep sea by settling and the fraction that is remineralized within SAMW or AAIW and subsequently subducted. The SAZ exhibits surface water carbon dioxide partial pressures well below atmospheric equilibrium, but PFZ waters are closer to atmospheric equilibrium in this sector [Metal et al., 1999; Poppet al., 1999]. The relative physical and biological contributions to these carbon dioxide partial pressure variations are unclear, but it is important to determine them because physical and biological carbon dioxide transfers are expected to show different responses to climate change [ Matear et al., 1999; Sarmiento and LeQuere, 1996]. For these reasons we focused on the SAZ and, for comparative purposes, on the PFZ to its south. We measured particle fluxes using moored sinking particle traps at three sites in the SAZ, in the PFZ, and beneath the Subantarctic Front (SAF), which separates them. This record describes particle flux data collected between 2000 and 2001. The NetCDF data contains the following variables. Please note not all variables are supplied in all files, specifically there are not uncertainty estimates and no quality control flags for this data. -----DATA DICTIONARY----- Name, description, units, standard name TIME, time, YYYY-MM-DD, time of sample midpoint TIME_START, time sample open, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample open NOMINAL_DEPTH, depth, m, nominal depth LATITUDE, latitude, degrees_north, latitude of anchor LONGITUDE, longitude, degrees_east, longitude of anchor pressure_actual, actual, dbar, actual pressure sample, sample number, 1, sample number sample_quality_control, quality flag for sample number, unitless, quality flag for sample number mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total mass flux mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total mass flux, mg m-2 d-1,), uncertainty for particulate total mass flux mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total mass flux SAL_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity pH_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale PC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux PN_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux POC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux BSi_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux TIME_END, time sample closed, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample closed Reference, citable reference DOI, DOI

  • This record presents data used in the paper 'Controls on polar Southern Ocean deep chlorophyll maxima: viewpoints from multiple observational platforms,' Philip W Boyd 𝘦𝘵. 𝘢𝘭., submitted to Global Biogeochemical Cycles, November 2023. All methods for the following datasets are detailed and cross-referenced in the paper. Data were collected from a range of methods, including: • vertical profiles (from 1 m resolved profiling using sensors on a CTD rosette: temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity - all calibrated) • vertical profiles (from discrete samples collected from CTD rosette or trace metal clean rosette, for nutrients, chlorophyll, POC, dissolved and particulate iron, active fluorescence, net primary productivity, biological iron uptake) • tow-body sections (undulating tow body (Triaxus) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity (and the ratio of chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity) • time-series observations from a robotic profiling float (BGC-ARGO) for temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and transmissivity).

  • Categories    

    At the inception of our project, no study had examined particle fluxes in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean, despite the fact that the SAZ represents a large portion of the total area of the Southern Ocean, serve as a strong sink for atmospheric (~1G t C yr-1 [Metzl et al., 1999]), and is central to hypotheses linking particle fluxes and climate change [Francois et al., 1997; Kumar et al., 1995; Sigman et al., 1999]. The SAZ serves as an interface between the cold nutrient-rich waters to its south and the nutrient-depleted subtropical gyres to its north. SAZ upper layers are marked by a thick layer of relatively homogenous Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), which overlies Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Both water masses are subducted northward beneath the subtropical gyres. Thus particles leaving the surface in these regions contribute to carbon redistribution via both the fraction that reaches the deep sea by settling and the fraction that is remineralized within SAMW or AAIW and subsequently subducted. The SAZ exhibits surface water carbon dioxide partial pressures well below atmospheric equilibrium, but PFZ waters are closer to atmospheric equilibrium in this sector [Metal et al., 1999; Poppet al., 1999]. The relative physical and biological contributions to these carbon dioxide partial pressure variations are unclear, but it is important to determine them because physical and biological carbon dioxide transfers are expected to show different responses to climate change [ Matear et al., 1999; Sarmiento and LeQuere, 1996]. For these reasons we focused on the SAZ and, for comparative purposes, on the PFZ to its south. We measured particle fluxes using moored sinking particle traps at three sites in the SAZ, in the PFZ, and beneath the Subantarctic Front (SAF), which separates them. This record describes particle flux data collected between 2004 and 2005. The NetCDF data contains the following variables. Please note not all variables are supplied in all files, specifically there are not uncertainty estimates and no quality control flags for this data. -----DATA DICTIONARY----- Name, description, units, standard name TIME, time, YYYY-MM-DD, time of sample midpoint TIME_START, time sample open, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample open NOMINAL_DEPTH, depth, m, nominal depth LATITUDE, latitude, degrees_north, latitude of anchor LONGITUDE, longitude, degrees_east, longitude of anchor pressure_actual, actual, dbar, actual pressure sample, sample number, 1, sample number sample_quality_control, quality flag for sample number, unitless, quality flag for sample number mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total mass flux mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total mass flux, mg m-2 d-1,), uncertainty for particulate total mass flux mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total mass flux SAL_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant practical salinity SAL_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant practical salinity pH_BRINE, supernatant, 1, sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_uncertainty, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, 1, uncertainty for sample supernatant pH NBS scale pH_BRINE_quality_control, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale, unitless, quality flag for sample supernatant pH NBS scale PC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total carbon mass flux PC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total carbon mass flux PN_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate total nitrogen mass flux PN_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate total nitrogen mass flux POC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate organic carbon mass flux POC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate organic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux PIC_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate inorganic carbon mass flux BSi_mass_flux, <1mm, mg m-2 d-1, particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_uncertainty, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, mg m-2 d-1, uncertainty for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux BSi_mass_flux_quality_control, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux, unitless, quality flag for particulate biogenic silicon mass flux TIME_END, time sample closed, YYYY-MM-DD, time sample closed Reference, citable reference DOI, DOI